The number 40 refers to the sum of protons 19 and neutrons 21 in the potassium nucleus. The older the organism, the lower the ratio. But when an organism dies, it ceases to replenish its supply of c But for brevity and clarity, I will mention only one. As mentioned above, the isochron method uses some mathematical techniques in an attempt to estimate the initial conditions and assess the closed-ness of the system.
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Before proposing their alternate theory about the residual 14 C found in very old samples, the Rate team first discusses the possibility of contamination.
How Old Is Earth?
If so, then their true ages are much less than their radiometric age estimates. One of those is the assumption that the c to c ratio in the atmosphere has always been constant. The physicist Hermann von Helmholtz in and astronomer Simon Newcomb in contributed their own calculations of 22 and 18 million years respectively to the debate: The discovery of radioactivity introduced another factor in the calculation. And since the decay rate was much faster in the past, those who do not compensate for this will end up with age-estimates that are vastly inflated from the true age of the rock.